All life on Earth has the right to exist, but as we teeter on the verge of a sixth extinction this book discusses why biodiversity matters and why we should care if species go extinct. We are witnessing the largest and fastest rate of extinction in the history of the planet. While the concept of rights is a human one, all plants and animals strive to survive, and this book argues for their rights to continue doing so without being driven into premature extinction by human actions. Acknowledging and describing the practical reasons for conserving biodiversity, this book argues that these should not overshadow the compelling ethical reasons to care about the future of species other than our own. However, the issues are complex. What do we do when faced with an immediate ethical choice where biodiversity rights, animal rights, human rights, economic development and ecosystem survival all get mixed up together? There are seldom hard and fast answers, but thinking about and understanding a variety of points of view will help us make informed trade-offs. Drawing on his vast practical experience, the author presents insightful perspectives and real-world examples with the hope that this book will instigate a much-needed rethink about why and how we practise conservation. This book is essential reading for all those concerned with sustaining our planet, and all who inhabit it, in the face of climate breakdown, biodiversity loss and ecological collapse.